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Article Bibliography

HybridPedagogy.com published my article In Connectivism, No one can hear you scream: a guide to understanding the MOOC novice.

Here’s the complete bibliography for the article, with some annotations.

At the end, I’ve linked Stephen Downes’s response to me (which, frankly, had me running in to the kitchen yelling “one of the inventors of the MOOC tweeted me!!!).


Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy; Toward a unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.

Seminal text on Self-Efficacy and motivation. Available here http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/Bandura1977PR.pdf

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122-147.

Seminal text on Self-Efficacy and motivation. Available here http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/Bandura1982AP.pdf

Belshaw, D. (2011, ). The Never Ending Thesis. What is ‘digital literacy’? . Retrieved May 6, 2013, from http://neverendingthesis.com/doug-belshaw-edd-thesis-final.pdf . This is a huge thesis, and far more detailed than I had time to engage with. But it’s also the most detailed, thorough and informative work on Digital Literacy I found.

Beetham, H. (2012, ).  The Design Studio. Digital literacies anatomy.pdf. Retrieved May 10, , from http://jiscdesignstudio.pbworks.com/w/file/40474828/Digital%20literacies%20anatomy.pdf

Clark, R. E. (1999). Yin and yang cognitive motivational processes operating in multimedia learning environments. In J. van Merrienboer (Ed.) Cognition and multimedia design. Herleen, Netherlands: Open University Press.

Detailed, thorough, and complicated text on the relationship between, amongst other things, cognitive load and motivation. Evidence backed, based on Bandura, and with lots of detail, and practical aspects. Available here http://cogtech.usc.edu/publications/clark_yin_yang.pdf

Downes, S. (2008, 10). Stephen’s Web. Connectivism and its Critics: What Connectivism Is Not ~ Stephen’s Web.  Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.downes.ca/post/53657

Downes, S. (2011). Stephen’s Web. Connectivism and Connective Knowledge. Retrieved April 26, 2013, from http://www.downes.ca/post/54540

Downes, S. (2012). Stephen’s Web ~ Stephen’s Web. Creating the Connectivist Course .  Retrieved May 17, 2013, from http://www.downes.ca/post/57750

Downes’s work is, of course, seminal, and key to understanding networked learning and connectivism.

Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based experiential and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.

The current fight between Instructionism, and Constructivsm is hugely based on this. Lots of controversy, debate and theory about which is best, unguided collaborative learning, or guided instruction, for novices. Available here http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/fss/2006-1214-211848/kirschner_06_minimal_guidance.pdf

Kizilcec, R. F., Piech, C., & Schneider, E. (2013). Deconstructing disengagement: analyzing learner subpopulations in massive open online courses. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (pp. 170–179). New York, NY, USA. Detailed, interesting take on participation rates, and the reasons behind non participation in xMOOCs. Available here http://rene.kizilcec.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Kizilcec-Piech-Schneider-2013-Deconstructing-Disengagement-Analyzing-Learner-Subpopulations-in-Massive-Open-Online-Courses.pdf

Kop, R. (2011). The challenges to connectivist learning on open online networks: Learning experiences during a massive open online course. The International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 12(3), 19-38. Retrieved from


Kop, R., Fournier, H., & Mak, J. (2011). A pedagogy of abundance or a pedagogy to support human beings? Participant support on massive open online courses. The International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 12(7), 74-93. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1041/2025

Kop’s work gives a good grounding in Connectivism, as well as a good account of problems and possible solutions.

Lane, L. (2012, 15). Lisahistory.net. Three Kinds of MOOCs « Lisa’s (Online) Teaching Blog.  Retrieved February 12, 2013, from http://lisahistory.net/wordpress/2012/08/three-kinds-of-moocs

Office for Information Technology Policy’s Digital Literacy Task Force, . (2013, ). District Dispatch – News for Librarians and Friends of Libraries from the ALA Washington Office. Digital Literacy, Libraries, and Public Policy.  Retrieved May 7, 2013, from http://www.districtdispatch.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/2012_OITP_digilitreport_1_22_13.pdf I snagged my Digital Literacy definition from here for my research proposal.

Rivard, R. (2013). Inside Higher Ed | Higher Education News, Career Advice, Events and Jobs. Researchers explore who is taking MOOCs and why so many drop out | Inside Higher Ed.  Retrieved May 16, 2013, from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/03/08/researchers-explore-who-taking-moocs-and-why-so-many-drop-out

Siemens, G. (2004). Elearnspace. Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age.  Retrieved May 15, 2013, from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm Seminal Connectivism text.

Wenger, E. (2001). Communities of Practice, Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Classic text on Communities of Practice in employment contexts – the interrealtionships in work that we use to learn, identify ourselves with, negotiate what we do and who we are with. A huge influence, I suspect, on Connectivism.

Downes’s response to my article – Connectivism and the Primal Scream.



  1. Thanks! Excellent article and resources.

    All the best, Judith Amesbury 905-243-7902

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